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Since their hips don’t flair, it’s challenging to find their ballast. Use the legs like the Lupin III did 🙂
I would like say something about art colleges: I would strongly advise not going anywhere that does not offer a full scholarship. I became an animator, as you know, but I’ve run into a problem in my career: although I draw well enough for it, I don’t have the background to relate to the most marketable content.
Before embarking on a commercial art degree, the prospective student needs to ask themself: “What kind artist am I?” A fine artist does his or her own thing without much consideration for the audience. A commercial artist MUST conform to the taste of their audience which is very difficult if they aren’t from the same background as the largest target market: the Irish/German nuclear family in the Midwest that wants no higher than an eight grade education level in entertainment. As an artist community Californian, I found this audience impossible to connect with. I find nothing funny about the deplorable character of Peter Griffin and being comfortable with the lack female characters in my medium. I ran away from Hollywood after five years before I lost my mind.
I had much better gigs outside of LA, but through them, I’ve come to learn that what I like to work on does not sell, therefore the interest on my student loans are through the roof!
SO, with that said, if a student wants to be a commercial artist, they need make SURE they can psychologically handle despicable characters living in their head and never leaving (I still can’t get Fry and Bender out of psyche after 18 years since I worked Futurama!)If not, try the experimental animation department at CalArts rather than the trade school oriented Character animation. The experimental students get full (or nearly full) scholarships which makes it easier to step away from the industry when it goes “remake and Maslow’s lowest appeals” mode in order to fill its coffers enough to make art again.
A recent conversation with a fiend of mine has brought me to the conclusion that I can not continue producing personal art for therapy alone. Professsional art has become more and more precarious as studios grant shorter contracts and startups become less reliable in their business practices. The violation of such laws namely; laying off without granting unemployment benefits is becoming more and more common. Therefore, I must monetize my personal films, webcomic and production blogs.
Intellectual property is an artist’s means of power on par with the more valued professions of doctor, lawyer and banker. It is an aritst’s work that gives a corporation a visual identity a written voice and tone to remember. New customers would never know a company existed without a recognizable logo, piece of copy of a catchy jingle. A content company like Warner Bros. and Disney would not have the staying power they have without the contributions of their artist’s.
Math would live soley in a quantum universe if an engineer with the skills of a sculptor had not managed to kit bash found objects into a prototype to test, perfect and share with the world. Practical use of the wheel didn’t manifest on it’s own. It took a visionary. An artist. A car is a mechanical sculpture. It’s a marriage of art and science.
I argue that all attributes of intellectual property, on a development, creative level should be granted royalties. Pre-production artists, animators and post-production artists on a creative/problem solving level should be granted royalties from the future profits of the company product. We are not doing cog work. Cog work is outsourced. The creative needs residuals to compensate for our short careers. She should still receive an income for the work she sees still making money for the studio she defined a popular character for long after her position has been replaced by a younger, cheaper creative. Don’t scoff, obsolescence comes about sooner than you think, if not age then change in audience which can happen within the first five years of your career. Wise up, even of you don’t breed, you still have student loans to pay. Existence comes at a price.
Until such pipe dreams of royalties become a reality, an artist must generate supplemental income with their personal work. It’s the only way to save six months salary in case of sudden job loss. Case in point: my last employer had not paid the crew for two months before dissolving the company. Nor has he paid labor department taxes for the last year of the company’s life. None of the crew will get unemployment insurance ( without a fight anyway). Without that safety net, we’ll all end up homeless.
How nice it would be if my web comic and production blog padded my savings account all this time so I would’ve have to lose my home and car. Or rely on the exhausted kindness of my friends and colleagues to pull me out of this mess.
With that said, this will be the last “production entry” on this blog. If you would still like to read production notes and industry advice, please follow my account on Patreon where such entrees are available for a fee. Until then, take my last bit of free advice: beware of start ups and never sign a work for fire contract as a creative contributor. If they’re going to pay you like a cog, do exclusively cog work. I know you’re excited to have your first gig or are still trying to make a name for yourself early in your career. However, that foolish enthusiasm is what studios and start ups are preying on; your naitvité to create an arch villain or a girl sports bunny to profit from long after your impoverished death with only your initial salary as compensation.
This is very important. Please read.
From wise Sue Bielenberg:
Based on my experience as a graphic designer at a medical forms plant in 1988, I can honestly say that NOBODY tests the safety of technology before subjecting artists to it. I got blepheritis from the Xenotron 2000’s CRT screen long before computers were standards in art departments. My ophthalmologist simply snarled, “If you file a workers comp claim, don’t involve me.” He had had a LOT of computer artists coming in asking for help. The new white screens were supposed to solve everything. I say that even if you stare at a daisy all day, you will suffer an ill effect. But start at a glowing daisy, and you will reallly suffer.
Beware of the glowing daisy….
I’m screening a variety of children’s programs and I’ve noticed that all the lead girls sound the same. It’s like that acting coach from the classic MGM films has resurrected herself and imposed her one trick pony range on the current generation of voice artists.
Poo! Poo! I say! Bring back variety. So for encouragement, I bring you a Lucy Van Pelt voiced by the great Pamelyn Ferdin. Tracy Stafford who performed Lucy for the Christmas special was terrific too. All the Peanuts girls were unique Patty, Violet, Peppermint Patty, Marcie and Freida were terrific and the series held that great quality until—-the changed Peppermint Patty’s voice to sound like most girl voices today. Girls are not a monolith! Fight for variety.
These are a few GIF’s I animated for Kizzang LLC. Check out the site, it’s for online casino gaming. It’s free, you don’t bet money you bet time. It’s sort of like television which is a selling machine in every home that offers content in exchange for advertising.
Give it a go: Kizzang Sweepstakes.com
You will performing just over two hours from now in Napa and I can not be there to cheer you on in full cosplay. At least I can give you this drawing to show my support and console myself for foregoing concert and airline tickets to pay my bills as far into to the long, bleak teacher’s summer ahead. Dazzle those who are there to see you with your brilliance dear Cure. I hope to see you next time you perform in a city near my home.
Much love and devotion,
In the 90’s when I was young and spoiled at Warner Bros., I was given the opportunity to revise a storyboard for an artist on the Batman series. I was very excited to get the work and did my best on the revision, but the artist I was working for saw a problem: despite multiple revisions, I could not draw a 3/4 on a character running away properly. At the time I was a junior at Cal Arts and I hadn’t learned how to break up the male torso yet. Little did I know, the muscle group that includes the trapezius, the latissimus and the lumber furrow, known to animators as “The Kite”, was the secret to finding the forms in the back. I didn’t learn that until senior year. I knew how to break up a female torso at any angle, but not a male. Thus another opportunity lost, because I did not take the time to observe men as much as women.
In my defense, there wasn’t much to look at in regards to male beauty in mid-90’s pret a porté fashion to inspire me. In influence of Morrissey, David Gahan and Robert Smith was gone and Kurt Cobain and Hip Hop was in—and never went awaaaaaay. Yeah, just try to find forms in grunge wear underneath all that flannel and over-sized clothing.
However, now that I am working on a film that is a culmination of twenty years of experience as a professional, I take issue with my shortcomings on a personal level. Hence, the floating girdle tutorials.
As you see here, this upshot of Fred, Kate and Cindy is pretty flat. Sure the roughs look pretty at a glance, but any traditional animation veteran will tell you that the clean ups/inks will be flat because there isn’t enough information in the rough and as it turns out, they’d be correct.
By “information” in animation we mean form. Form is difficult to achieve if you don’t know anatomy well. The situation worsen when an artist stumbles across a region of anatomy with minimal landmarks. Hence we have part two of the floating girdle tutorials: The Shoulder Girdle.
The shoulder girdle and torso on a man is a tricky bit of machinery. When developed it is easy to find the forms needed to structure the torso, but when there is no definition, it is an indecipherable mass that is difficult to draw. Unlike women, men have no flared hips to provide land marks for the torso. Sure there is the rib cage, but the rib cage is not a very inspiring structure to draw. There needs to be more to keep the artist interested in the body and maintain volumes when turning a male character around.
Most life male life models use the doryphoros stance as their main 20 minute pose, but what an animator and sequential artist needs is movement. Few models can hold a dynamic pose for 20-40 minutes, so what I suggest is taking screen captures from film footage and tracing over the subject to study the forms. If you really want to get meticulous you can import video into Flash, early versions of the applications are best if you still have you old computers around. They import video without a bunch of aS3 settings to deal with or you can simply open an aS2 file. However, for this tutorial screen captures and Adobe Illustrator will be used.
First we gesture draw to loosen up.
The dancer in this piece has a nicely defined torso and is moving in a way that is useful for comics and film. He may be performing interpretive dance, but it is easy to appropriate the poses for a superhero creating energy fields with their powers and characters fighting. This is great reference.
The kinesiology (muscle and bone) I used to structure the gesture of this character are the
—and of course governed the weight with the pelvis. The head is the heaviest structure, but the pelvis is the ballast (counter weight) of the body. Notice how in the pics that don’t feature the back the muscle groups are still pulled towards the rear? This is because I am using the Kite as the governing muscle group.
The following images are of the kite visible from the side. The latissimus is the most visible muscle here and it’s a great way to split the body down the sagittal plane in profile shots. Isn’t Arnold and his colleagues great for this study?
The Kite is the largest muscle group that pertains to animation (with the diaphragm membrane to counter it in the front across the abdominals) in the torso, therefore all of the other muscles are attached to it either directly or via a neighboring muscle that is attached to the Kite. When drawing form, you must draw what is not visible. You do this by drawing using construction lines in a rough technical drawing before erasing what you don’t need after the “math” is done and then applying the final clean up line. That’s illustration. In animation, another sheet of paper is placed over the rough, which serves as an under-drawing and then a clean up line drawn on the fresh sheet of paper.
Below is a good example of the latissimus on adolescent boys. This is great if you are working on an action-adventure show like Teen Titans or Ben 10.
Let’s break down the reference.
This is a sequence from Angels With Dirty Faces. The boys are playing basketball and become aggressive when vying for the ball. This is good reference for fight scenes and working on sports themed cartoons like Space Jam and An Extremely Goofy Movie as well as the Bugs Bunny and Crusher shorts.
Swing struggles with the ball with another player. He is crouched over, so his back is partially exposed. This is a very difficult pose to draw from imagination. Usually, I map out the line of action to govern the gesture before drawing, but not here. There are a lot of obscured structures that must be eked out, so I drew the overall shape, using the egg and flower sack method and then sought the pelvis (drawn in blue) first. Weight is very, very important!
For the second tier of the exercise I included the line of action (green) and drew through the forms. While revising, I toggled the drawing layer on and off to find mistakes. My findings exposed my misinterpretation of the direction of the head in the reference layer, which I corrected. Then I corrected the anatomy. For example, the pectorals begin more at the center of the underarm not the rear. To make sure of my assumption, I found another scene which showed how the pecs attach under the arms neighboring the latissimus muscle which is part of the Kite to confirm.
In the final stage, I deleted all the construction lines and tightened up the character. I now have a clean pose to use toward my animation or sequential art panel.
Another part of the torso that is tricky is breaking up the pectoral muscles and attaching them to the shoulder girdle. A common mistake is to draw the pectorals like a breast and simply drawing a short line down the middle of the chest to suggest the pectorals for lithe build or puff breast indicated by a U-shape for a heavier build. This works great as a design that is not going to move much, but not for animation. Animators need more information.
Studying the female form is not to bad of an idea for studying men. Especially women with well defined deltoids or who’s greater pectorals that are flat at the top near the deltoids are clearly distinguishable from the rest of the breast like Tilda Swinton in Orlando ( shown immediately above). The deltoids are the muscle on top and side of the greater pectoral/breast that spreads the cap of the upper arm. This muscle group includes the deltoid, pectorals major ( where the form is puffy or flat in areas on some women like the first female model shown) and pectorals minor ( where the nipple is). I have not learned of a euphemism for this structure, so let’s call it a “shelf”.
In this photo of Iggy Pop, you can see that he has very nicely developed deltoids. I broke it down a bit so you can see how everything connects. Note: I drew the map of the deltoids going through the pectorals, they really don’t attach that way. However, for the sake of execution a solid drawing I drew though the forms they neighbor. Remember drawing through shapes creates form. It’s what all animators must do, suspend your sense of reality sometimes.
Now as the arms move, the shelf flexes and contracts (or puffs up and flattens out if you prefer). It is very common for novice artists to draw this structure unchanging as the character moves, which is a mistake. It squashes and stretches just like the rest of the body, but remember all of that squash and stretch must work as part of the flow of the body. Easy enough. Just draw a line of action and you’ll know what the structure is doing according to the how the body is distributing it’s weight. For example, when the subject is lifting something and the arms are not extended, the shelf will contract. When the arms are extended the shelf will flex (flatten out). The body is meant to be functional. With the few exceptions like overly swollen breasts, an athletic body is designed aid the body in movement,not hinder it. So, as you see, no matter how puffy your muscles are, they will flatten out when they’re relaxed, just like Arnie and his friend’s muscles are here.
Putting it all together.
The muscle structure that connects the two halves of the body are the group around the waist, the abs, diaphragm membrane and obliques. Most animation character designers omit this area, so unless you have an obsession with the structure, you can skip it for now. Your character will probably run better without it anyway. However, if you design creatures, it may come in handy, so if you feel inclined, go find some nice oblique and abdominal reference. Have fun devising a name of your own to call it.
I really can’t stress the importance of a light box enough. Even if you are a digital artist, you will still have to draw by hand sometimes, just for the precision of key scenes. Invest in a light table or light box. They can be pricey, but if you shop around schools, you’ll find that they’re willing to sell old equipment as they make room for the digital age. A class only needs a few light boxes, but previous generations of the course had thirty light boxes, one for each student. Hunt about and see if you can make a deal.
After learning how to structure an athletic ideal, draping girth on the body should be easier. Think of girth as clothes; just drape it off the muscle like starched clothing. Note the way I outlined James Cagney’s body here within his clothes. Can you think in reverse and substitute the cut of the suit for girth? Try it.
Eventually, when you are comfortable enough to actually have fun with the male form, you can play like Daemion George Cox here. For the women who this tutorial is mainly for, you’re at a disadvantage. Daemion is a guy, therefore he has a biological advantage for abstracting the male figure. Women who don’t see obliques when they look in the mirror everyday. But don’t despair. Daemions skill is not unattainable, but for a woman, perhaps it will just take a little while longer to match or even surpass. Regardless, have fun and loosen up when get the hang of drawing the make form.
Make it a habit of breaking down forms like this with screen captures. People move too quickly to jot down dynamic poses for tie down purposes from life. Sure it’s important to draw from life. That’s how you learn movement, so this technique is not a substitute for that. However, when it comes time tie down gestures, this is good practice. Here are more examples of analyzed forms and a more screen captures for you to drag to your desktop and practice on your own.
Oh, those darn obliques and now abdominals. Here’s a cartoon example of what to do with those darn things.
Here’s Edward G. Robinson He’s a stocky man, but he’s still elegant and agile in a suit
Also, try men of different ethnicities. See how much fuller the legs on this model are without having a wide super hero torso? It’s a trait on men as you move further east into Eurasia. This Native American yoga instructor, did not have to build his full legs. They’re just part of the natural flow of his body. Charlie Chaplin, who was Romani (originally from India, despite popular belief that Gyspies ( now a pejorative term, are from Egypt), had the same build. However, mankind does not just stay in one place and gene pools to integrate. Gene Kelly, who was Irish had full legs too, but he was also a dancer, so it’s up to speculation whether they were built along with his dance practice or an anomaly in his genetic make up. Most men we see who are of European decent, especially the North Sea, have thin legs while Asians, as mentioned before, have full legs.
Abercrombie and Fitch
Pop Quiz: Find both Dr. Frankenfurter’s shoulder girdle AND pelvis. Oh, those floating girdles. Tricky, but fun!
If you need a refresher on the pelvis, see the pelvis tutorial.
In a future post I’ll talk about how apply your sartorial aesthetic to the male figure. Now go make interesting male characters. It’s a boy’s world in the animation industry nowadays, ladies. But don’t despair and just make do, make the characters look better!
Kittens and Unicorns,
I taught an animation seminar at the Gay and Lesbian Center of Las Vegas last week. A good time was had by all. I learned that I can hold the attention of a room full of people in a teaching context and the kids received valuable information about the best art colleges on the West Coast–if not the country. It was great fun. I can’t wait for the master class!
Drawing Lola broke the ice of course. Thank you, Easter Bunny. Cal Arts, USC, Art Center and Otis-Parsons. You can’t go wrong with a commercial art degree from these fabulous schools!
Here’s a short video someone took with an iPhone. However I do wish they had caught my Rape of Persephone lecture. I told the class how it is the basis of all little girl lost stories. It was the perfect response to a student’s statement of how Howl’s Moving Castle is such a story and it may resonate with her, because, like Sophie and Persephone–a girl can not come out of her shell or grow up unless she leaves her mother’s influence and although subsequent she doesn’t have to be raped, but the girl is mentored by an older mysterious male.